April 11, 2021

Which one is better: C++ or Java?

Introduction

Java is an object oriented programming language whereas C ++ is both a procedural and an object oriented programming language. Java supports automatic garbage collector. It does not support destructors like it does in C ++. C ++ is platform dependent, but Java is platform independent. C ++ supports the goto statement, but Java does not. C ++ supports multiple inheritance and Java does not support multiple inheritance by class. There are many differences between the C ++ programming language and Java. A list of the main differences between C ++ and Java is given below.

Java

Java was created by James Gosling and two of his colleagues in 1991. It was originally based on the syntax of the C programming language, as that was the standard at the time. Java is a versatile programming language, which means it is meant for everyday use (that is, for everyday tasks).

One of the most important features that make Java stand out in the comparison between Java VS C ++ is the accompanying slogan – “write once, run everywhere” (or WORA, for short). This slogan is meant to represent the universality of Java – its creators intended the programming language to be applicable to most existing programming tasks.

Java’s unique adaptability and universality have made it the language of reference for many software development companies around the world. This is especially true with Android development: When it comes to the C ++ VS Java debacle, Java stands out with its well-established reputation among various developers.

The majority of criticisms directed at Java can be summarized into three broad groups: speed, age and security. The subject of speed may come as a surprise – few articles on Java VS C ++ mention it, but Java had big problems when it comes to the speed of the programming language. This may be news for you, because nowadays it is considered to be one of the fastest programming languages ​​on the market! That being said, with modern processors, this point might not be relevant, in general.

When it comes to age, a lot of people say that Java has not aged well and is very outdated compared to other more progressive programming languages ​​(the comparison between Java VS C ++ is one. excellent example). However, Java aims to challenge these claims with Java 9, a heavily updated version of the language, aimed at naysayers and here to prove something. However, when it comes to security, it’s a bit of an old story: Java experienced a few security issues early in its existence, but has since addressed them.

C++

 

C ++ was created in 1979 by Bjarne Stroustrup. Similar to Java, C ++ is a versatile programming language intended for everyday use.

If this Java VS C ++ comparison article is the first time you’ve heard of C ++, you might be confused as to its similarity or difference to the more popular programming language – C. Well, the point is that C ++ is a deviation from C The main difference between these two programming languages ​​is that C is mainly used for system level programming (so it’s not really intended for simple, everyday use), while C ++ was created to be used for everything from game building all the way to software and server-side development.

One of the most remarkable features of C ++ (and this will be very important when discussing the performance of Java VS C ++) is that it offers almost unparalleled levels of performance. Most industry experts compare it to C. Plus, C ++ is lightweight, has manual memory management, and can be used on any platform.

Some of the most important C ++ issues arise when we talk about memory management and security. Manual memory management means that most of these processes have to be done by the programmers themselves. In terms of security, we can say that C ++ “negotiates” it to be able to do almost everything with the language itself. This is a “high risk – high risk” scenario.

 

Difference between java and C ++

 

ThemeC++Java
Compilation and portabilityCompilation (which goes through several stages: preprocessing, creation of object files, editing of links) provides a binary (or executable) file that can be used directly on the machine on which it was created. To use it on another machine, you must often recompiled the source.The compilation of a source code produces an intermediate code (and not a binary code) which needs the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) to be interpreted. This code is portable on any machine having the JVM (beware of the differences) between versions of the JVM).
Conception
Allows object-oriented programming (OOP) and prog. procedural: no obligation to create classes
Java is almost pure OOP: classes are mandatory BUT
– there are primitive types (int, double, boolean, …)
– you can create static class methods (static) which can be used without instantiating an object
Variable Constants
Variables declared with the keyword const
Variables declared with the keyword final
Constant Methods
The const keyword is placed after the method declaration. Only constant methods can act on a constant object
Does not exist. (Final applied to a method has a completely different meaning -> see below)
Type conversion
All digital type conversions by assignment are accepted, even if it means greatly degrading the information
Only conversions that fall under digital promotion are allowed per assignment (others must be explicitly requested)
Definition / declaration of classes
Usually the declaration of a class is in a separate “.h” file from the “.cpp” implementation (or definition) file
Declarations and definitions are in the same “.java” file
Pointer
A pointer represents the address of the pointed object, it is handled like a variable
There is no pointer in Java
Instantiating an object

Two solutions:

– by its declaration -> automatic object

– by new -> dynamic object (pointer)

Only one solution:
-by new and we then have a reference to the object (and not a pointer like in C ++)
Instantiation – default builder
parentheses not required:
A a;
A * a = new A;
A * a = new A ();
Mandatory parentheses, only declaration possible: A * a = new A ();
Memory management
-All variables allocated by new must be explicitly deleted by delete
-Declaring an object will result in the reservation of a memory location for the object

-Java has a garbage collector: the garbage collector detects objects that are no longer referenced and destroys them -> delete does not exist in Java

– the declaration of an object results in the reservation of a memory location for a reference to the object (and not for the object) the memory dedicated to the object will be effectively allocated with new

Passage of arguments

3 possibilities:

– by value (the modifications remain local to the function)

– by address or pointer (the modifications are effective outside the function)

– by reference (the modifications are effective outside the function)

1 only possibility: by value BUT

– for the primitive types the modifications are therefore local to the function,

– for the objects (the name of the object being a reference) the modifications are effective outside the function

Init. default for the fields of an objectNo
Yes (at 0, false or NULL)
Object assignment a = b
For automatic objects, shallow copy (recopy of the values of the different fields)
copy of reference only
Default argument values
Yes: the declaration of a function can contain arguments by default:
voidf (int n = 0);
Does not exist
Allocation of tables
2 possibilities:
– static arrays: int t [10];
– dynamic arrays: int * t = new int [10];

Always dynamic-> with new:

int t [] = new int [10];

or int [] t = new int [10];

Size of an array
There is no field specific to an array, we must store the size in another variable
Arrays are handled like objects. There is a default field “length” which can be accessed by t.length (where t is the name of the array)
Arrays in memory

In C ++ arrays with several indexes declared statically are contiguous in memory

Ex: int t [10] [25] creates 250 contiguous cells

In Java, arrays with several indices split memory:
int t [] [] = new int [10] [25] not contiguous
Inheritance: derivation

Three possibilities:

class B: public A

class B: private A

class B: protected A

Only one possibility: class B extends A which corresponds to the public derivation of C ++

Multiple inheritanceyes
no (but there is the notion of interface)
Constructor of a child class

– Must support the specific part of the daughter class: the constructor of the parent class is automatically called by C ++ – if the constructor of the parent class requires arguments, they can be specified in the header via “:”

B :: B (int arg1, double arg2): A (arg1)

Must support the entire construction of the object

-Can call the constructor of the parent class via the keyword super (), in this case it must be the first statement B (int arg1, double arg2) {super (arg1 );

// …}

Successive derivationsyes
yes (in this case super designates the constructor the directly superior class)
Protected members
Accessible only to derived classes
Accessible to derived classes and also to classes of the same package
Method redefinition

Call to the parent class method via the “::” scope resolution operator

void B :: display ()

{A :: display ();

// …}

Call to the method of the parent class viale keyword super
Class B extends A {
public void  display() {
display.super();
System.out.println(“classe B”);
}
}
Polymorphism
Implemented only if:
-dynamicligature (use of pointers on objects)
-virtual methods (use of the virtual keyword)
always effective (the ligature is always
Abstract classes
A class is abstract (cannot be instantiated) if it contains a pure virtual method
Abstract keyword: –
either placed in front of the class
– or applied to a method (which immediately makes the class abstract)
Command line arguments
int main (int argc, char * argv [])
argc gives the number of elements (including program name) and argv contains the arguments
public static void main (String [] args)
We access the number of parargs.length elements, the name of the pgr is not considered as an argument
Flow management
Very simple thanks to the << and >> operators
Much more complex: multiple classes, no formatted read functionality
 Some features that do not exist in C ++
Superclass Object
 All classes implicitly derive from this super class -> they have all of its functionality (e.g. toString () provides the class name and its @)
Final classes and methods

-A final method cannot be overridden in a child class

– A final class can no longer be derived

interface
An interface only defines method headers and constants
public interface I {
// …..}
A class can implement one or more interfaces
class A implements I  {
// …..}

 

 

 

Which one is better: C++ or Java?

Comparison criteria

When it comes to programming languages, you can start your analysis from several different points. Since it would be frankly impossible to list them all in this Java VS C ++ comparison, I’ve chosen three that seem to be the most common to determine which of the two languages ​​is better.

The three criteria in question are performance, popularity and salary. Let’s take a quick look at them, and then we’ll jump right into the Java VS C ++ comparison.
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Performance

In a way, performance is an overall point of analysis. It’s also quite self-explanatory: if a programming language is to be good, it has to work well, right? While this is true, things are not always that simple. Some languages ​​focus on aspects of performance that are different from others – this is how they are built and developed. Additionally, even though a programming language may be underperforming “on paper”, there can be different variables involved. For example, some specific programming languages ​​may be designed for specific purposes and therefore require less power than their competition (I’m looking at you, C #).

Popularity

While it may seem rather arbitrary at first glance, popularity is actually one of the most important characteristics of a programming language. Honestly, it’s even more evident when it comes to this Java VS C ++ comparison. Let me explain.

Imagine you wanted to learn a very specialized programming language, for example, for your own benefit. Now what would be the very first thing you would do in this situation? That’s right – go on the internet and try to find information that might be helpful in your learning process. So you Google this programming language … Only to find that there is hardly any information about it available online. Of course, you’ll likely find snippets here and there, but they don’t help you fully and thoroughly analyze the language in question. It can be extremely frustrating, but that’s what happens when you decide to learn a language that doesn’t have a “backbone,” meaning a strong community supporting it.

And that’s the other thing too. A strong and passionate community is also very important for programming languages. Of course, performance like Java VS C ++ performance is important “objectively”, but if a language does not have a dedicated community, it is likely to die out sooner or later. Programming enthusiasts help preserve their preferred languages, whether that’s by monitoring their development, creating valuable and informative material from which newbies can learn, or in any other way.

Salary

Finally, we have a programmer salary. It probably won’t surprise you when I tell you that different programming languages ​​usually offer different salaries. It depends on many different factors, but some of the main ones are complexity, demand between suppliers, skill level of the programmer, needs of the company (employer), etc. This is also why people are turning more and more to Multipurpose Programming Languages: They are universal in design and therefore can be used in many different situations.

If you ask about some of the online forums dedicated to programming, you may find that many people have decided to learn programming simply because of the salary and job security that this career path provides. . Having said that, now you can probably see how important the pay is when you choose a programming language to start learning.

The comparison

In order to keep things as simple as possible, I will go through each of the individual points and see how C ++ and Java stack up against each other. Let’s start with performance.

Which one has better performance?

Although the design of the two programming languages ​​is quite different, Java and C ++ are considered to be the best players when it comes to performance. That said, C ++ tends to be a bit faster because Java code has to be interpreted at runtime, which slows down processes. When it comes to power, however, these two languages ​​work well, albeit in different ways.

Which is the most popular?

It’s no secret that Java and C ++ are both very well known and popular. As C ++ dominated the market, Java started to gain recognition more and more from 2012. Today, Java is widely regarded as the most popular alternative, although it is not. designed for use as general as C ++. However, both languages ​​have their own fan base, and there’s a mountain of information about them for anyone looking to learn.

What offers a better salary?

According to Glassdoor.com, a Java developer can earn around $ 88,100 per year, or nearly $ 7,350 per month. However, it is estimated that a C ++ developer earns over $ 95,000 per year, or nearly $ 8,000 per year!

It is obvious that C ++ programmers make more money… But why is this the case? This is largely due to the complexity of the language. C ++ is considered to be one of the most difficult programming languages ​​in the world.

 

Conclusion

So which of the two programming languages is worth learning? Well if you want to learn a very abstract language that can be used in different life scenarios but is also quite difficult then C ++ is a good choice. If, however, you want to be more specific and try something simpler, Java is your language. Whichever you choose, I hope this article has helped you learn about Java VS C ++ performance, salaries, pros and cons, and many other aspects. Good luck ! 

 

 

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