April 20, 2024

5 Differences between von neumann and harvard architecture

Harvard’s original architecture makes it possible to store instructions on perforated tape and data in electromechanical counters. The von Neumann architecture forms the idea of recent computing and is simpler to implement. this text examines the 2 computer architectures individually and explains the difference between the 2 .

von Neumann Architecture





Application and characteristics

  • Memory: We all know that the Von Neuman is nothing quite a computer with the function of knowledge storage. within the architecture of Von Neuman, memory plays an important role and it’s considered to be one among the important characteristics. it’s primarily liable for both maintaining and starting data and programming data. In times this has been replaced by RAM and now we use RAM for this purpose.
  • Control unit: This unit is especially liable for the control aspect. All data stored in memory and through processing the control unit plays the role and manages the info flow. In fact, to be more typical, it’s “One at a time”. The control unit follows the principle of 1 At A Time and thus processes all data.
  • Input Output: Like all electronic devices, the Von Neuman architecture also has an input / output architecture. the essential function is that the same and zip specially designed for the input and output architecture. With the input and output device, an individual can communicate with the device.
  • ALU: ALU or Arithmetic Logic Unit features a great importance within the architecture of Von Neuman. Any quite addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of the info are going to be done by this ALU. additionally to the present , all other quite algorithmic functions and activities are going to be performed by the ALU. These are the elemental aspects of Von Neuman’s architecture that you simply got to know.

Harvard Architecture



Application and characteristics

  • Memory status:In the previous architecture, we witnessed the presence of two memories. However, within the case of Harvard architecture, you’ll not find two memories and there’ll be one memory. the prevailing memory are going to be ready to perform all functions. Yes, there’ll only be ROM and this memory are going to be used for reading, encoding, decoding and data storage purposes
  • The speed aspect:There has been tons of dialogue about Harvard architecture, but without speed no architecture are often accepted. But within the case of the Havard architecture, the manufacturers designed the architecture to be ready to process data at a way higher speed. Yes, every precaution has been taken in order that the architecture can process data at high speed.
    By implementing an equivalent formula, modern CPUs are made in order that the new CPU can run with much faster speed and may also process data efficiently. The concept of CPU cache is additionally implemented within the design of the Harvard architecture.


Features of Von Neumann architecture

  1. Von Neumann’s architecture may be a theoretical design supported the concept of stored program computer.
  2. Von Neumann’s architecture has just one bus used for both instruction retrieval and data transfer. most significantly , the operation must be planned as they can’t be performed at an equivalent time.
  3. within the von Neumann architecture, the processing unit would require two clock cycles to finish an instruction.
  4. The von Neumann architecture is usually used literally on all machines, from desktops, laptops, high performance computers to workstations.

Features of Harvard architecture

  1. Harvard Architecture may be a modern computer architecture supported the Harvard Mark I relay computing model.
  2. The Harvard architecture features a separate memory space for instructions and data that physically separates signals and code from storage and data memory, which successively allows simultaneous access to every of the memory systems.
  3. within the Harvard architecture, the processing unit can complete instructions in one cycle if appropriate pipeline plans are defined.
  4. Harvard architecture may be a new concept used specifically in microcontrollers and digital signal processing (DSP).
  5. The Harvard architecture may be a complex architecture because it uses two buses for instruction and data, an element that creates the event of the control unit relatively costlier.

Difference between Von Neumann and Harvard Architecture

Point of comparison Harvard architecture Von Neumann architecture
Arrangement In the Harvard architecture, the CPU is connected to both data memory (RAM) and program memory (ROM). In the Von-Neumann architecture, there’s no separate data and program memory. Instead, just one memory connection is given to the CPU.
Hardware configuration
It requires more hardware because it’ll require separate data and address bus for every memory.
Unlike Harvard architecture, it requires less hardware because only common memory must be reached.
Space required It requires more space. The Von-Neumann architecture requires less space.
Execution speed The execution speed is faster because the processor simultaneously retrieves data and instructions. The execution speed is slower because it cannot retrieve data and instructions at the same time.
Use of space This leads to wasted space because if space is left within the data memory, the instruction memory cannot use the space of the info memory and the other way around . Space isn’t wasted because data memory space are often employed by instruction memory and the other way around .

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